Microscopy is key in the research, formulation and manufacturing stages of pharmaceutical product development. Both optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are often used to optimize particle size, morphology and roughness of pharmaceutical materials. Understanding size distribution and morphology of pharmaceutical particles either containing active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) or excipients are critical for optimizing both the compounding process and product solubility.
- Phenom SEMs can also be paired with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) to analyze the chemical composition of pharmaceutical products or foreign particulate with sub-micron lateral resolution.
- Pharmaceutical companies often utilize 3D optical profilometry to quantitatively determine the surface finish of tablets. Roughness is important to control when developing consistent tablet swallowability.
Tissue Engineering & Regenerative Medicine
For over three decades tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have been employed to save lives and improve the quality of life in humans and animals. Various scaffolding techniques have been developed to recreate the extracellular matrix (ECM) of different types of tissues. Some of these include freeze drying, salt leaching, 3D printing, and electrospinning. Electrospinning, in particular, is a technique that has gained popularity among researchers and industries to create scaffolding material for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Electrospinning is a versatile, easy to use, cost-effective, and flexible technique for processing biocompatible and biodegradable materials. For example, it can create fibers in the nano- and micro-scale, process thermolabile bioactive, and chemically or physically modify the sample to desired needs.