There are multiple manufacturing processes for fiber production. Depending on the physical and/or chemical properties of the materials to be used in some techniques are more feasible than others. Common techniques include 3D printing, hot melt extrusion, and electrospinning. Among these, the electrospinning technique, which involves an electrohydrodynamic process, has attained worldwide attention to overcome some limitations from other fiber producing techniques. One example includes the ability to use thermolabile polymers and drugs during production while preventing instabilities or loss of bioactivity, as opposed to hot melt extrusion. The electrospinning technique also offers the advantage of easy fiber production from a wide range of materials and solvents.
Fiber production through electrohydrodynamic processes is typically done by melt or solution electrospinning. While melt electrospinning does not involve the use of organic solvents, it typically cannot process two, or more, polymers with different melting points at the same time without inhibiting co-polymerization. Meanwhile, solution electrospinning overcomes this disadvantage by avoiding the use of high temperatures during processing. Electrospun fibers can be easily engineered before, during and/or after the spinning process to increase fiber production.