In Situ TEM Gas & Heating – Climate



In situ TEM video of perovskite solar cell
Perovskite solar cell gif

Thermal degradation of a perovskite solar cell

Climate In situ TEM Gas & heating

Climate is the only solution on the market that brings a fully functional nano-reactor to the TEM. Based on a revolutionary MEMS device coupled with gas supply and optional gas analyzer and vaporizer, samples can be exposed to controlled gaseous and heating conditions while collecting atomic resolution images and reaction kinetics data.

The full platform has customizable options to elevate and accelerate your materials research while preserving performance of the TEM.

Why Climate?

  • Realistic reaction conditions – pressure range up to 2 bar
  • Dynamic mixing – finely tune up to 3 input gases (pressure, flow, composition) on the fly
  • Vaporizer accessory – add vapor just before it reaches the holder, making explosive mixtures safe to work with

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Climate key features


Modular sample holder allows each component to be cleaned or replaced before new experiments thus avoiding cross-contamination.

The best TEM and STEM image performance and optimized EELS/EDS data collection due to only 60 nm window thickness.

Independently control pressure, flow, and composition while safely adding water vapor to any gas mixture just before it enters the holder.

Nano-Reactor: The smallest known chemical reactor

The revolutionary Climate Nano-Reactor has been redesigned to make every aspect of your in situ TEM workflow streamlined – from sample preparation to imaging and EDS data collection. This MEMS based devices acts as a functional sample carrier allowing a controlled gas and heating environment to be exposed to the sample. Replicate real-world industrial reaction conditions

  • Easy sample preparation
    Directly deposit catalyst nanoparticles samples onto the Nano-Reactor using drop casting techniques.
  • Optimized EDS top chips
    Two key innovations make the Nano-Reactor optimized for EDS data collection: (1) By removing material around the electron transparent window in the EDS top chips, a larger collection angle for X-ray detection can be accomplished. Tilting the holder in the alpha direction by 20-30° results in a significant increase in EDS count rate. In combination with the stability of the Climate Holder, elemental mapping can be acquired in a relatively short period of time (typically less than 30 minutes). (2) The thin membrane at the center of the EDS top chip improves signal to noise, resulting in higher resolution images and maps.
  • Crossing the pressure gap
    It is crucial to replicate real-world chemical reactions on the nanoscale for meaningful in situ TEM experiments. The Nano-Reactors unique construction can withstand pressures up to 2 mbar. Combined with the Gas Supply System, users can rapidly switch between different gases and program experiment flows using Impulse Software.
  • Micro-heater

    Climate’s Nano-Reactor is a proven MEMS technology that delivers superior performance in temperature accuracy, reliability and stability. Metal lines in the devices are encapsulated with SiNx to ensure no interaction with the gas or the sample. At the center of the micro-heater, a homogeneous temperature environment is created around ten electron transparent windows where in situ observations take place. A four-point probe mechanism both monitors and rapidly adjusts temperature based on user input and gas interaction, ensuring the sample temperature is stable and controlled.

  • Calorimetry
    Another feature of the four-point probe microheater is the ability to accurately monitor heat absorption and dissipation during endo- and exothermic reactions. Both resistance and power dissipation across the microheater are displayed in real time with ultra-high resolution allowing key changes in sample dynamics to be identified. This data can indicate catalyst activity thus providing powerful structure-activity relationships.

  • Catalysis
  • Gas-solid interfaces
  • Nanomaterials
  • Corrosion studies
  • Materials synthesis and growth
  • Green energy materials