In Situ TEM Liquid + Heating or Biasing – Stream

In situ TEM video of perovskite solar cell
Perovskite solar cell gif

Thermal degradation of a perovskite solar cell

Stream In situ TEM Liquid + biasing or heating

Stream is the number one solution for in situ liquid phase electron microscopy (LPEM). The plug-and-play system provides researchers with the capability to conduct high resolution TEM imaging and spectroscopy of nanomaterials, soft materials, or biological samples in dynamic liquid environments.

With the possibility to apply heating or biasing stimuli within the liquid environment, and even wider range of exciting phenomena can be investigated.

Why Stream?

  • High experimental success rate – microfluidic channel ensures sample-liquid interaction, flushes away bubbles, and maintains supply of fresh solution
  • Full experimental control – accurately define speed, pressure, and direction of liquid flow
  • Clean and repeatable – modular design makes cleaning easy, avoids cross-contamination and clogging

Logo of DENS Solutions company

Stream key features

Dissolve bubbles, control liquid layer thickness, and flow direction via pressure-driven flow.

Modular sample holder avoids cross-contamination and clogging, easy to clean and upgrade.

Integrated Liquid Supply System provides inert gas purging, ease-of-use, and reproducibility.


Stream’s patented Nano-Cell innovates over the previous generation of in situ liquid holders that rely on diffusion-controlled “bathtub” designs. A combination of a dual-chip MEMS assembly with a spacer creates a microfluidic channel with an electron-transparent window encapsulating the viewing area. This is the only system giving the microscopist full control over the liquid-sample interaction.

  • Mass transport control
    By varying inlet and outlet pressures, the user can precisely determine when liquid will be introduced and removed from the region of interest. Additionally, the liquid thickness can be minimized via flow control making it possible to collect high quality TEM data.
  • Reduce electron beam effects and radiolysis
    One of the biggest concerns for life science applications is the harmful impact of water radiolysis on biological specimens. With optional graphene window layers, free radical species are scavenging thus minimizing beam damage to sensitive material
  • Reduced setup time
    Older generation in situ liquid holders, like DENSsolutions Ocean, employ syringe pumps and rely on diffusion for liquid to reach the viewing area meaning it can take anywhere from 15 to 45 minutes to start an LPEM experiment. With Stream, the combination of the Nano-Cell and Liquid Supply System enables rapid liquid transport to the viewing area on the order of tens of seconds.

Materials Science

  • Batteries
  • Electrocatalysis
  • Corrosion
  • Nanomaterials
  • Materials synthesis and growth
  • Soft material

Life Science

  • Brownian single particle analysis
  • Protein-protein interaction analysis
  • Organic crystal growth
  • Vesicle formation and liposome formation