Technology: Cathodoluminescence

White Papers

Tech Note | Technology: Optical Tensiometry

Leveraging Contact Angle Measurements to Predict Polymer Blending

Plastics made from polymeric materials are an integral part of many consumer goods and products. Whether it is the packaging or the product itself, different polymers can provide material and mechanical properties to suit the product’s functional needs. With the increased integration of environmentally sustainable…

Tech Note | Technology: Scanning Electron Microscopy

Monitoring Technical Cleanliness with Automated SEM & EDS

Technical cleanliness is the exhaustive control of contamination across manufacturing and assembly of components to protect product integrity. In precision systems, undesirable particles can be detrimental to functionality, eroding and abrading surfaces through repetitive contact (Figure 1). Trapped between tight fits, they essentially act as…

Tech Note | Technology: Scanning Electron Microscopy

Preparing Powders for Scanning Electron Microscopy

Powders are one of the most common forms of materials that are analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The distribution of particle sizes, composition, and surface morphology plays an important role in determining their behavior in different environments. Powders have found utility in every industry…

App Note | Technology: Quartz Crystal Microbalance

Overcoming Obstacles in Food Science with QCM-D

Food science plays a crucial role in meeting the demands of a growing population, ensuring a consistent supply of safe and nourishing food, and promoting sustainable practices to minimize waste. Each step in the journey from raw materials to packaged food products presents different challenges,…

App Note | Technology: Scanning Electron Microscopy

Characterization of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Components

Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that can provide clean, renewable energy for widespread applications, from powering handheld devices to entire buildings. Of the various fuel cell types, arguably the most promising are the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, also called polymer electrolyte membrane fuel…

App Note | Technology: Force Tensiometry

Optimizing Lithium-Ion Battery Materials with Force Tensiometry

Batteries are a decisive element of modern mobile power consumption. While batteries have already been integrated irrevocably into smaller devices such as smartphones or portable computers, rechargeable batteries are increasingly used to propel larger energy consumers like cars and trucks as we shift our reliance…

Tech Note | Technology: Scanning Electron Microscopy

Automated Gunshot Residue Analysis Using Scanning Electron Microscopy

Meticulous collection, analysis, and interpretation of material obtained from crime scenes are imperative in ensuring accurate evidence is presented during legal proceedings. Forensic scientists investigate a diverse range of samples depending on the type of crime scene. From extracting trace DNA to deciphering blood spatter…

Tech Note | Technology: Scanning Electron Microscopy

Python Programming for SEM Automation

Scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) are staple tools for analyzing the structures and elemental makeup of surfaces with high resolution. Bringing SEM instruments in-house can provide immense value to organizations that require microstructural analysis and prioritize fast turnaround times.. Integrating these complex instruments into existing workflows…

App Note | Technology: Scanning Electron Microscopy

Analyzing Morphological and Mechanical Properties at the Microscale for Tissue Engineering

Regenerative medicine is an evolving field focused on developing advanced technologies that harness the body’s natural healing abilities to restore or replace damaged tissues and organs in the body lost due to disease, trauma, defects, or aging. This field can potentially reduce the need for…

App Note | Technology: Optical Tensiometry

Surface Free Energy for Monitoring Surface Cleanliness

Surface Free Energy (SFE) of a solid surface is analogous to the surface tension of a liquid. Just as the surface tension of a liquid is a result of the force imbalance that occurs due to the termination of cohesive forces above a liquid with…

Tech Note | Technology: Electrospinning

Controlling the Orientation of Electrospun Nanofibers for Tissue Engineering

Electrospinning is a versatile and promising technique for fabricating nanofibrous scaffolds that can biomimic the extracellular matrix (ECM) of natural tissues. These nanofibrous scaffolds have several unique properties, including a high surface area-to-volume ratio, adjustable pore size, and tunable mechanical and biochemical properties. The mechanical…

Tech Note | Technology: Spark Ablation

Spark Ablation Based Additive Manufacturing for Electrolyzer Fabrication

Water electrolysis is widely regarded as a promising solution for supplying green hydrogen at scale. Electrolyzer devices use electricity to drive the water-splitting reaction, producing streams of H2 and O2 gas from pure water, aqueous solutions, or steam. Among the different electrolyzer technologies, proton exchange…

Tech Note | Technology: CryoEM Sample Preparation

Overcoming the Learning Curve of CRYO-EM Sample Preparation

Advancements in cryogenic transmission electron microscopes coupled with recent breakthroughs in detectors and automation have moved single-particle cryo-EM from its revolution phase to a faster, more powerful era. Software and automation for operating transmission electron microscopes and processing data have made the technique easier and…

App Note | Technology: Optical Tensiometry

Contact Angle Measurement for Monitoring Surface Cleanliness

Surface contamination is a concern for a wide variety of industries and their production processes such as polishing, surface treatments, coatings, bonding, and etching. Contamination can arise from a variety of sources, such as process oils and lubricants, aerosolized particles, residues from handling, or chemical…

App Note | Technology: Scanning Electron Microscopy

Morphological and Compositional Analysis of Battery Materials

The crux of energy storage research concerns optimizing the properties of electrochemical devices to improve efficiency, reliability, safety, and cost – four core concepts that push ceaseless efforts into the battery industry. Since batteries are such a ubiquitous technology, critical to the everyday lives of…

App Note | Technology: Scanning Electron Microscopy

Bioavailability of Pharmaceutical Nanoparticle Formulations

Every affliction of the body has its respective remedy, some targeted solution designed to alleviate or prevent negative health effects. Such remedies may have a long list of responsibilities to carry out once administered into the body – to soothe headaches, halt dripping noses, and…

App Note | Technology: Quartz Crystal Microbalance

In Situ Monitoring of the Solid Electrolyte Interphase

A good understanding of different electrochemical processes that occur inside a device is critical for the optimization of various components of rechargeable batteries. Since all critical processes of batteries and other energy storage systems occur at the electrode-electrolyte interface, researchers have focused their attention on…

App Note | Technology: Quartz Crystal Microbalance

QSense Analysis of CMP Slurry Additive and Abrasive Interaction with a Ceramic Surface

For an overview of how QSense QCM-D can be used in molecule – surface interaction analysis and optimization of CMP-related processes, please refer to our previous application note. This case study shows how QSense® QCM-D (Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation monitoring technology) can be used…

App Note | Technology: Quartz Crystal Microbalance

Overview: QSense QCM-D analysis in Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP)

To read an in-depth case study about QSense analysis of CMP slurry additive and abrasive interaction with a ceramic surface, click here. Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP), sometimes referred to as Chemical Mechanical Polishing, relies on several nanoscale surface interaction processes, and so does a successful…

App Note | Technology: Electrospinning

Tissue scaffolds: Perfect nanofibers with Electrospinning

What if you could quickly and easily customize the porosity, flexibility, and strength of your tissue scaffolds to mimic the properties of native tissue more closely? Fabricating tissue scaffolds to meet specifications with batch-to-batch consistency can be a challenge, especially with tubular structures like vascular,…

Measuring the advancing and receding contact angle on a tilted surface

App Note | Technology: Optical Tensiometry

Superhydrophobicity, Oleophobicity, and Contact Angle

Introduction Superhydrophobic and oleophobic surfaces are receiving increased attention because of their potential to provide breakthroughs in applications such as anti-fouling, self-cleaning, and anti-freezing. Contact angle measurements are often used to characterize the properties of these surfaces. However, the low wettability of these surfaces presents…

App Note | Technology: Electrospinning

Controlling temperature and relative humidity for electrospinning and electrospraying sample development

Over the past decade, the emergence and evolution of electrospinning and electrospraying manufacturing techniques have accelerated the development of various applications including tissue engineering, drug delivery, filtration, and energy storage. Both electrospinning and electrospraying have grown in popularity because of many specific advantages over more…

App Note | Technology: Quartz Crystal Microbalance

Effect of Excipients, Storage, and Formulation Conditions on Therapeutic Protein Stability

Why are protein – container enclosure interactions important? During manufacturing, storage and delivery processes, therapeutic proteins encounter several surfaces and materials, such as metals, glasses, oils, and polymers. These can range from stainless-steel production vessels to glass prefilled syringe delivery devices. The inherent surface-active nature…

Langmuir-Blodgett roll-to-roll deposition

App Note | Technology: Langmuir Blodgett

What is Langmuir-Blodgett Roll-to-Roll Deposition?

Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) deposition is a well-established method for generating monolayers of sample onto a substrate. A layer of molecules (or nanoparticles) are placed at the interface and compressed with barriers until they form a monolayer at the air-liquid interface, then a substrate is dipped through…

Contact angles demonstrating hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces

App Note | Technology: Optical Tensiometry

Cleanliness and quality control testing by contact angle – how clean is my surface?

Contamination can have a wide variety of undesirable effects in manufacturing processes such as polishing, surface treatment, coating application, and etching. Some sources include finger oils from handling, atmospheric dust and dirt, and process lubricants. While best practices such as personal protective equipment use and…

Powder surface as seen in an optical tensiometer

App Note | Technology: Optical Tensiometry

Measuring the contact angle, surface free energy and wettability of powders

For powdered materials such as pharmaceuticals, dyes, proppants, and foods, wettability is an important parameter to characterize. As the powders are immersed into a liquid, fluid may wick into the interstitial spaces between powder particles through capillary forces. The wettability of the powder can be…

TEM images of Gold Silicon Dioxide with nickel nanoparticles from three sources

App Note | Technology: Spark Ablation

Why are nanoparticles important in heterogeneous catalysis?

How the VSParticle spark ablation technology can help with heterogeneous catalysis Developing the mainstream heterogeneous catalysts of tomorrow requires a fundamental understanding of today’s state-of-the-art catalysts. Today’s catalysts are generally composed of metallic nanoparticles (e.g. Pt, Ru, Ni, Co) deposited on an oxide support (e.g….

Image of tilting contact angle

App Note | Technology: Optical Tensiometry

Optical Tensiometry as a Tool to Measure Coating Properties and Substrate Adhesion

How can Optical Tensiometry Characterize Coatings? Coatings are used to modify the properties of the substrate that they cover and are ubiquitous in our everyday lives. They can have functional, protective, and/or aesthetic purposes. One everyday example of a coating is the touchscreen on a…

Energy Storage Concept Image

App Note | Technology: Quartz Crystal Microbalance

Characterization of Surfaces and Surface Reactions in Energy Storage using EQCM-D

There has been a global shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy to protect civilization from the worst effects of climate change. Special focus has been given to solar and wind energy. However, utilizing electricity from solar and wind in a grid becomes challenging due…

Spontaneous surfactant migration in an air-liquid system and oil-water system

App Note | Technology: Optical Tensiometry

Dilatational Rheology of Foams, Emulsions, and Suspensions

The Attension Theta Flex and the Pulsating Drop Module PD-200 Emulsions and foams play a key role in important products such as foods1, pharmaceuticals2, and oil recovery formulations3. The stability of these products plays a key role in their performance and shelf life. Amphiphilic molecules…

App Note | Technology: Scanning Electron Microscopy

Phenom Desktop SEM: ParticleX as an Enabling Technology in Additive Manufacturing

In the past two decades additive manufacturing (AM) has rapidly evolved from a cutting-edge technology into a routine manufacturing method. The ability to quickly print complex shapes in a cost-effective and energy efficient manner has helped revolutionize the go to manufacturing method in a huge…

Optical image of pendant drop of a sample

App Note | Technology: Optical Tensiometry

How Interfacial Rheology Can Replace Inefficient Emulsion Characterization in Droplet-Based Microfluidics

Emulsion Stability in Droplet-Based Microfluidics There are a lack of tools to efficiently predict emulsion stability. Stabilizing emulsions is a significant problem in foods [1], personal care products [2], pharmaceuticals [2], and droplet-based microfluidics. Some major applications of droplet-based microfluidics include single-cell gene sequencing [3],…

VitroJet autogrid sample preparation

App Note | Technology: CryoEM Sample Preparation

Automation and Jet Vitrification: Keys to Revolutionizing Single Particle Analysis Sample Preparation

Plunge freezing has been the gold standard for cryoEM single particle sample prep several decades now [1]. For better and for worse, it did the job. It’s been the method that cryoEM users have relied on to create the samples which have been used in…

DIY cloth masks

App Note | Technology: Scanning Electron Microscopy

Effectiveness of DIY masks: How do they work?

The rapid worldwide spread of the novel coronavirus, also known as COVID-19, has upended all conventional thinking regarding the scope of the damage it is causing and ways to control the spread. Although washing hands frequently and maintaining social distancing are the guidelines to help…

App Note | Technology: Scanning Electron Microscopy

Effectiveness of Masks: Fast Answers with Automated SEM Analysis

The worldwide spread of COVID-19 has everyone questioning how to protect themselves and help those on the front line of the coronavirus. The CDC recommends facemasks be used for those that have COVID-19 or are showing symptoms and now for anyone in areas with significant…

App Note | Technology: Quartz Crystal Microbalance

Analyzing cleaning of hard surfaces using QCM-D

The rapid spread of coronavirus, COVID-19, is currently the most concerning matter worldwide. The outbreak has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). The U.S. Food and drug administration (FDA), National Institutes of Health (NIH) and several other government organizations are reducing…

App Note | Technology: Optical Tensiometry

Why Your Surgical Mask Orientation Matters: How We Use Wettability to our Advantage

Amid the COVID-19 pandemic, surgical masks and N95 respirators (Fig. 1) have gained significant media attention, both for their use as personal protective equipment (PPE) and their limited supply. While the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) does not recommend that the public wear…

Schematic of a fringe-projection phase shifting measurement

App Note | Technology: Optical Tensiometry

Simultaneous Characterization of Topography and Contact Angle

Improved control and design of dental and orthopedic bone implants through simultaneous characterization of topography and contact angle To ensure the safety and quality of medical implants, parameters such as the roughness, cleanliness, and wettability of the surface must be characterized. Because these properties are…

COVID-19 Virus

App Note | Technology: Quartz Crystal Microbalance

Virus Detection with Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM-D)

The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has become a worldwide pandemic that has caused massive disruptions at all levels of life, from government infrastructure and markets to our day-to-day interactions with each other. Like Zika, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and the H1N1 (swine flu) viruses before…

Oil and gas enhanced oil gas EOR

App Note | Technology: Optical Tensiometry

Enhancing EOR with High-Pressure Contact Angle Measurements

Improving Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) with the Attension Theta Flex High Pressure Chamber Measurements As oil demand continues to rise, many oil reservoirs are no longer capable of producing oil by traditional primary and secondary extraction methods. To extract these oils, enhanced oil recovery (EOR)…

Plasma Treated protocol sessle drop analysis

App Note | Technology: Optical Tensiometry

Quantifying Enhanced Wettability and Time-dependency of Plasma-treated Polypropylene

Wettability and Adhesion Problems for Polypropylene (PP) Products When applying coatings, inks, adhesives, and other materials to a surface, controlling the surface properties becomes critical. In particular, the wettability – the ability of the process liquid to spread and adhere to the solid surface –…

App Note | Technology: Force Tensiometry

Accurately Monitoring Interfacial Tension of Transformer Oil Quality

How the Attension Sigma 702ET Quickly and Easily Monitors the Interfacial Tension and Quality of Transformer Oil Transformers account for nearly 60% of the cost of high voltage substations [1], and the time to repair some transformers is over one year [2]. Given the long…

The Polishing AR ion time dependence.

App Note | Technology: Ion Milling

Use the Right Tools to Create the Best EBSD Images

High Resolution Electron Back Scatter Diffraction (EBSD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) Surface/Cross Section Sample Preparation In Electron Back Scatter Diffraction (EBSD) studies, surface quality is a key issue. Diffraction patterns are formed within a few tens of nanometers of the sample surface. A crystalline,…

Ion Milling at different energies.

App Note | Technology: Ion Milling

High Performance Transmission Electron Microscopy with Focused Ion Beam Milling

Focused Ion Beam (FIB) Sample Milling for High Performance Transmission Electron Microscopy Investigation (TEM) The use of focused ion beam (FIB) systems has become the method of choice for site-specific transmission electron microcscopy (TEM) sample preparation. Although focused ion beam offers advantages over conventional mechanical…

App Note | Technology: Scanning Electron Microscopy


Fractography is a method in failure analysis for studying the fracture surface of materials. Studying the characteristics of the fractured surface can help to determine the cause of failure in an engineered product. Different modes of failure produce characteristic features on the surface, allowing a…

App Note | Technology: Scanning Electron Microscopy

Evaluation of Filtration Fibers & Membranes

Fiber-based filtration systems clean everything from the air we breathe to the oil that runs our engines. Many filters, like high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) and ultra-low particulate air (ULPA) filters, are made from glass or polymer fibers. Some are a woven mesh of metal fibers,…

App Note | Technology: Scanning Electron Microscopy

Fiber and Filter Quality Measurements

Filtration and fibers used to separate liquids from particles or particles from air play an important role in our everyday lives. Filters help to clean air, water or oil for automobiles, this important product plays a major role in keeping our lives running at their…

App Note | Technology: Scanning Electron Microscopy

Grain Size Measurement of Ceramics

Ceramics often have grain sizes and microstructure that impact material performance. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images are used to quantify the grain sizes and distribution. Grain boundaries and microstructure can be optimized with ceramic processing parameters for specific product requirements. Ceramic Grain Size and Coverage Backscattered…

App Note | Technology:


Ceramics typically include a combination of ionic and covalent bonds to form a material with high modulus and hardness, high melting point, high thermal expansion and corrosion resistance. Because these materials may be brittle, fracture toughness is also an important mechanical property. Composites are made from…

Temperature's effect on fiber diameter and distribution

App Note | Technology: Electrospinning

Electrospinning for Improved Nanofiber Production

There are multiple manufacturing processes for fiber production. Depending on the physical and/or chemical properties of the materials to be used in some techniques are more feasible than others. Common techniques include 3D printing, hot melt extrusion, and electrospinning. Among these, the electrospinning technique, which…

3 different configurations for fiber production

App Note | Technology: Electrospinning

Electrospun Nanofiber Structure and Morphology

The beauty of the electrospinning technique is that it allows the production of fibers in different structural organization and morphologies to meet their application needs. Researchers and industries use fibers in applications like drug delivery, tissue engineering, energy storage, textiles, and filtration of different media….

Nanofiber Characterization of Electrospun Fibers

Extruded fibers used for nonwoven textiles are found in many consumer products including filters, wipes, automotive components, upholstery, sports apparel, roofing materials, bedding, fiberglass boats, surgical gowns, and diapers. Fabrics, filtration, medical scaffolds, fuel cells, insulation and other applications now include nanofibers for improved product…

App Note | Technology: Scanning Electron Microscopy

Gunshot Residue (GSR) Analysis

Gunshot residue (GSR) analysis is a standard method to determine if a firearm has been used. Particles for GSR analysis typically range from 0.5 to 10 microns. Often the primer particles containing lead (Pb), barium (Ba) and antimony (Sb) are detected and analyzed using EDS…

App Note | Technology:


Optical and scanning electron microscopes (SEM) are some of the instruments commonly used in general investigations and analyses for criminal, environmental and industrial forensics. These tools are used to characterize forensic evidence like fabrics, metals, particulates, textile or glass. Microscopic imaging can also aid in…

App Note | Technology: Scanning Electron Microscopy

Electron Microscopy of Minerals

Scanning electron microscopy is now a routine technology employed in the study of rocks and minerals. In addition to providing high-resolution images, electron microscopes generate a variety of additional signals that are often employed to further our understanding of geological samples. Chief among these are back-scatter electron…

App Note | Technology:

Earth Sciences & Geology

Cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging is used to study provenance, texture, growth zonation, composition, and the presence of trace elements in rocks to determine history, composition, and permeability. CL can be used to study geological samples such as sandstone and zircon. The porosity and composition of sedimentary rocks like…

App Note | Technology: Electrospinning

Electrospun Patches for Regenerative Medicine

Electrospun Scaffolding for Regenerative Medicine In order to properly regenerate cells and tissues that have been damaged or lost due to a disease or age, the scientific community has employed electrospun samples thanks to their ability to biomimic the extracellular matrix (ECM) native structure. The…

Electrosprayed CDC cell distribution time

App Note | Technology: Electrospinning

Co-Spinning Fibers and Cells to Improve Infiltration

Improving Cell Infiltration in Electrospun Nanofibers It is common knowledge that in order to biomimic the extracellular matrix (ECM) structure, electrospun fibers can be created with fiber diameter ranging in the nano- to micro-scale. Meanwhile, cell infiltration into scaffolding material is usually limited by pore…

Glioma cells and aligned electrospun PCL fibers

App Note | Technology: Electrospinning

Cell Growth and Proliferation on Electrospun Scaffolds

Electrospun Scaffolding for Cell Growth and Tissue Engineering In any type of scaffolding material cell migration, proliferation and differentiation are a key parameter for the success of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. The ability of electrospun scaffolds to biomimic the extracellular matrix (ECM) environment…

Electrospun tubular shaped scaffolds

App Note | Technology: Electrospinning

Biomimetic Mechanical Properties of Tissue Constructs

Electrospun Nanofiber Scaffolding for Blood Vessels One of the main goals of electrospun fibrous scaffolding is to completely biomimic the extracellular matrix (ECM) environment. This includes incorporating cells and sustaining their proliferation, having fiber orientation according to the structure being mimicked, allowing degradation of the…

Comparison of blood vessels with electrospun fibers

App Note | Technology: Electrospinning

Bioactive Incorporation into Spun Scaffolds

Electrospun Scaffolds that are Thermolabile Bioactive Scaffolding techniques such as 3D printing and melt electrospinning can resemble the extracellular matrix (ECM) environment, however, due to the high temperatures involved they do not allow the process of thermolabile bioactives. These high temperatures denature bioactives (e.g. proteins…

App Note | Technology: Electrospinning

Electrospun Grafts for Wound Healing

Regenerative Medicine Utilizing Electrospun Scaffolds for Wound Healing Imagine a world where no organ donors are needed; a world where any type of tissue can be artificially created and function as compared to native tissue without rejection or scar formation. Scientists and engineers are currently…

Processed SEM image of Particle

App Note | Technology: Scanning Electron Microscopy

Pharmaceutical Particle Characterization

Particle Analysis and characterization with the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) Understanding the physical characteristics of particles in dry powder materials is an essential aspect of drug product development. The particle size distribution of either active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) of excipients often has a significant impact…

Generic EDS of a bulk tablet.

App Note | Technology: Scanning Electron Microscopy

Pharmaceutical Deformulation

The Analytical Tools Needed for Deformulation of Pharmaceutical Imaging plays an integral role in the deformulation of any product. Separation and quantification of individual ingredients often require a suite of analytical instrumentation. The Phenom ProX desktop SEM with EDS is the ideal tool for accurately…

This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google Privacy Policy and Terms of Service apply.