Precision Contact Angle Tensiometers

Smart Interfacial Measurement Solutions for Wettability and Adhesion

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Attension Theta High Pressure Chamber

Product Image of the Attension Theta High Pressure

The Attension® Theta High Pressure is a tensiometer for measuring wettability and interfacial tension at high pressures and high temperatures within enhanced oil recovery research. With the harsh conditions of an oil reservoir in mind, the instrument is designed to ensure ease of use and yet offer wide measurement possibilities. Attension Theta High-Pressure Unique Piston Design

  • Measure surfactants or corrosive liquids.
  • Increase pressure without adding fluid into the measurement cell.
  • Enables constant surfactant concentration over different pressures.
  • Smart design to avoid pump corrosion from brine and other corrosive bulk solutions
  • Special Sample Port for easy introduction and cleaning
  • Automatic Pump Option

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Easy to Use
  • Sample introduction and system cleaning made simple
  • Smart sample port enables direct introduction of sample with a syringe and direct cleaning of the same sample line without passing through a pump
Intuitive software with high functionality
  • OneAttension software features include live analysis and automatic measurements. Drop volume is shown regardless of the pump being used.
  • Offers Broader Surface Science Possibilities
Minimal corrosion risk
  • No need to add corrosive liquids through the pump as the pressure can be increased by a piston inside the chamber. The corrosive liquid is placed directly in the corrosion-resistant chamber to minimize any corrosion risk.
Liquid and gas studies
  • The optional automatic syringe pump easily compresses either gas or liquid compared to traditional pumps mainly for liquids.
  • Wide experimental conditions
  • Temperature control options for both elevated temperatures and sub-room temperatures.
Automated pressure control
  • When using an optional automatic pump, the measurement pressure can be automatically reached. Changing the pressure is always just a click away.
  • Facilitates Measurements
Versatility in Measurements
  • Surface tension, interfacial tension, contact angle and surface free energy in one set. The possible sample size for contact angle measurements is the biggest on the market.
Automatic droplet creation
  • With automatic pumps, droplet creation can be automated to reduce hands-on time.
  • Surfactant studies at constant concentration
  • Thanks to the piston, pressure can be increased without changing surfactant concentration, unlike in conventional designs.

Applications

Applications mainly relate to enhanced oil recovery and supercritical fluids. By measuring wettability and interfacial tension with Attension Theta High Pressure you can get information on how to optimize:

  • EOR processes by measuring interfacial tension between oil, brine, water, surfactant solution, CO2 or other EOR fluids
  • Rock material wettability to increase oil reservoir yield
  • Efficiency of CO2 in flooding EOR by measuring the minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) of CO2
  • CO2 storage and wettability of rock material with CO2
  • EOR oil displacement with supercritical fluids (SCF)
  • Drilling fluid composition and effectiveness

Wettability of CO2 in Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)

In order to gain the maximum yield from an oil reservoir, methods grouped under the name enhanced oil recovery (EOR) are used. One common EOR method is to use CO2 to both dissolve and displace oil in a reservoir.

To study the effectiveness of the CO2, the wettability of it can be measured by using interfacial tension and contact angle measurements. The interfacial tension between CO2 and brine, for example, correlates with how easily carbon dioxide can be pumped into the reservoir. Likewise, the contact angle of an oil drop in a carbon dioxide environment gives a measure of how well the CO2 can displace the oil on a rock surface.

  • ST, IFT, CA and SFE in high pressures and temperatures
  • Incredibly easy to use, packed with smart features and offers broader surface science possibilities
    • Unique piston design
    • Automatic pump option
    • Special 6-port valve
    • Both heating and cooling

Enhanced Oil Recovery

Thermal methods:Will adding heat change the equilibrium in reservoir enabling higher oil yield?

    • Interfacial tension between oil and brine
    • Contact angle of an oil drop on a mica surface in brine

Gas methods: Can an injected gas displace or dissolve crude oil in reservoir? E.g.

      • Interfacial tension between CO2 and brine
      • Contact angle of an oil drop on a mica surface in CO2

Chemical methods: Can rock be less oil-wetted by adding an EOR agent? E.g.

    • Interfacial tension between oil and brine in the presence of a surfactant
    • Contact angle of an oil drop on a mica surface in brine in the presence of a surfactant

Product details and specifications

The Attension Theta High Pressure is an optical tensiometer with a high-pressure chamber inside which the measurement takes place.

The instrument consists of high-quality parts that ensure the ease of use, functionality, and safety of the system. The chamber itself is made from corrosion resistant stainless steel and can be optionally offered to be made from Hastelloy instead. The chamber includes three windows for visualizing the interphase. The chamber can be placed either in an upright or inverted position which removes the need for using hooked needles as the same straight needle can be used independently of the phases. The chamber sits on the Attension Theta optical tensiometer which uses Full HD-resolution camera to image the interphase precisely.

The unique piston enabling accurate and convenient surfactant and brine studies is placed inside the measurement chamber. Next, to the chamber, a sample port is situated which is used for introducing the sample and for flushing the sample line easily. All other valves are integrated to a valve door to be able to safely and conveniently open and close the desired pressure lines. The valve door is a part of the larger safety cabinet that makes the system exceptionally safe to use.

For temperature control of the chamber, there are two options: resistor heating or Peltier heating and cooling. Resistor heating enables software-controlled temperature range from ambient to 200 degrees Centigrade whereas the Peltier element combined to a water bath enables temperature control from 1 to 70 degrees Centigrade.

The system uses two high-pressure pumps: one to create pressure in the chamber and one to create the droplet under high pressure. Thanks to the flexible design of the Attension Theta High Pressure, the system can be used with both automatic and manual pumps and can even be connected to pre-existing pumps if preferred. The manual pump is an economic solution for performing measurements using liquids. An automated HPLC pump automates the liquid droplet creation and/or liquid pressure increase in bulk. For gasses, their compression capability is limited and an automated syringe pump is required. Using a configuration of one manual and one automatic pump enables gas measurements conveniently.

If required, the entire chamber can be disassembled and reassembled easily within minutes. This makes cleaning of the chamber convenient as the parts can be flushed or washed in a washing machine.

The Attension Theta High Pressure keeps its user well protected with multiple safety mechanisms. Two overpressure valves automatically release any excess pressure through the release lines. Overheating is prevented using both an overheating switch that will cut the heating power if the temperature exceeds the maximum temperature limit as well as with the OneAttension software that will refuse to overheat the chamber. The cabinet with its easily-accessible valves reduces the need to be near the heated and pressurized parts.