Scanning Electron Microscopy

A scanning electron microscope (SEM) scans a focused electron beam over a surface to create an image. The electrons in the beam interact with the sample, producing various signals that can be used to obtain information about the surface topography and composition.


Electrospinning is a voltage-driven process governed by the electrohydrodynamic phenomena where fibers and particles are made from a polymer solution.

Optical Profilometry

Profilometry is a technique used to extract topographical data from a surface. This can be a single point, a line scan or even a full three-dimensional scan. The purpose of profilometry is to get surface morphology, step heights and surface roughness. This can be done using a physical probe or by using light.

Atomic Force Microscopy

The atomic force microscope (AFM) was developed to overcome a basic drawback with STM – it can only image conducting or semiconducting surfaces.

Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) works by scanning a very sharp metal wire tip over a surface. By bringing the tip very close to the surface, and by applying an electrical voltage to the tip or sample, we can image the surface at an extremely small scale – down to resolving individual atoms.


Cathodoluminescence (CL) is used to characterize optical properties at the nanoscale. Cathodoluminescence techniques analyze the resulting photons that are emitted in the ultraviolet to near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Mechanical Testing

Mechanical testing is used to determine properties such as hardness, modulus, fracture toughness or yield strength.


Nanoindentation enables researchers to measure mechanical properties such as modulus and hardness of materials in different shapes, sizes and scales.

Ion Milling

Ion milling is the process of removing the top amorphous layer on a material to reveal the pristine sample surface for high-resolution imaging and post-processing.